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References

The following references are mainly obtained from Medline although those beginning  CHT:  are from our department. They are grouped under the general headings of -

  1. Generator Production
  2. generator useage
  3. clinical use
  4. dosimetry
  5. related topics

 

Generator Production

CHT:  81Rb-81Krm Generators: cyclotron production, dispensing, quantitative measurements and supply
P O Childs, A B Mostafa, N R Williams, D A Causer, S P Downey, N Hilder
Clinical Physics and Physiological Measurement 1983: 4; 97. (Abstract)

CHT:  Measurements of rubidium isotopic activities and the elution parameters of 81Krm generators using a standardised In-114m source.
N R Williams, P O Childs, D A Causer, A B Mostafa
European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 1985:10;33-38.

CHT:  Zicronium levels in the eluate of krypton-81m gas generators.
A B Mostafa, S H K Sandhu, P R Cowtan, N R Williams, R A Braithwaite, S R Hesslewood
Nuclear Medicine Communications 1986: 7; 291. (Abstract)

Determination of residual activities in 99mTc generators and 81mKr generators.
Muto T
Radioisotopes. 1987 Oct;36(10):530-3. (Japanese).

Long-lived radioactive contaminant of a krypton-81m gas generator.
Rosenstein LM, et al.
J Nucl Med. 1989 Sep;30(9):1574-5.

 

Generator Useage

CHT:  Efficiency of breathing systems used with 81Rb-81Krm generators
A B Mostafa, PO Childs, D A Causer
Clinical Physics and Physiological Measurement 1983: 4; 97 (Abstract).

CHT:  A quantitative evaluation of breathing systems used with Kr-81m generators
PO Childs, A B Mostafa, D A Causer
Journal of Nuclear Medicine 1983: 24; 157-159.

CHT:  Optimisation of the use of 81Krm generators.
P O Childs, N R Williams, W H Thomson, A B Mostafa
European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 1985:11;A46 (Abstract A254).

CHT:  Regional pulmonary distribution of 81Krm gas delivered by different breathing systems.
A B Mostafa, P O Childs, N R Williams, D A Causer
Journal of Nuclear Medicine 1985:26;191-193

CHT:  Are modern 99Tcm collimators suitable for Kr-81m?
W H Thomson, A Mills, P Childs, L K Harding
Nuklearmedizin 1987: 26; 143.

CHT:  Testing collimators for 81Krm.
A P Mills, W H Thomson, P Childs, L K Harding
Nuclear Medicine Communications 1987: 8; 269. (Abstract)

CHT:  The bolus effect of a reservoir system for 81Krm gas delivery.
N R Williams, P Iles, D Boldy, P O Childs, L K Harding
Nuclear Medicine Communications 1987: 8; 306. (Abstract)

CHT:  Secondary radiation shield for 81Krm gas generators.
S K Ghosh, P O Childs
Physics in Medicine and Biology 1990: 35; 127-130.

CHT:  A pump for 81Krm gas generators.
P Childs, N Franklin
Nuclear Medicine Communications 1994: 15; 202 (Abstract)

 

Clinical Use

CHT:  Quantification of aerosol ventilation images: a comparison with 81Krm.
N R Williams, A B Mostafa, W H Thomson, S Brisco, L K Harding
Nuclear Medicine Communications 1986: 7; 319 (Abstract)

CHT:  A comparison of the quantification of ventilation images using aerosol and 81Krm.
N R Williams, A B Mostafa, W H Thomson, L K Harding
Clin Phys Physiol Meas. 1987: 8; 190 (Abstract).

CHT:  Kr-81m: Factors affecting quantitative lung analysis.
N R Williams, D Boldy, P Iles, W H Thomson, L K Harding
Nuklearmedizin 1987: 26; 158.

CHT:  Differences between aerosol and 81mKr distribution in normal subjects.
N R Williams, D Boldy, P B Iles, W H Thomson, N J Tulley, L K Harding
Nuklearmedizin 1987: Suppl. 24; 400-402.

CHT:  Which collimator for V/Q imaging with 81Krm?
P Childs, A Mills, W Thomson
Nuclear Medicine Communications 1992: 13; 397 (Abstract)

Discordant findings between krypton-81m gas and Tc-99m labeled ultrafine aerosol lung ventilation SPECT in two patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
Watanabe N, et al.
Clin Nucl Med. 1995 Apr;20(4):315-7.

Technegas versus krypton-81m gas as an inhalation agent. Comparison of pulmonary distribution at total lung capacity.
Isawa T, et al.
Clin Nucl Med. 1994 Dec;19(12):1085-90.

Controlled delivery of krypton-81m boli in normal subjects: results and implications.
Verbanck S, et al.
J Nucl Med. 1993 Nov;34(11):1859-65.

Distribution of radioactive aerosol in the airways of children and adolescents with bronchial hyper-responsiveness.
Backer V, et al.
Clin Physiol. 1992 Sep;12(5):575-85.

Left lower lobe ventilation is reduced in patients with cardiomegaly in the supine but not the prone position.
Wiener CM, et al.
Am Rev Respir Dis. 1990 Jan;141(1):150-5.

Regional comparison of technetium-99m DTPA aerosol and radioactive gas ventilation (xenon and krypton) studies in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism.
Ramanna L, et al.
J Nucl Med. 1986 Sep;27(9):1391-6.

A comparison of the economics of xenon 127, xenon 133 and krypton 81m for routine ventilation imaging of the lungs.
Nimmo MJ, et al.
Br J Radiol. 1985 Jul;58(691):635-6.

Regional specific mean expiratory gas flow from 81mKr equilibrium inhalation data.
Hamilton D, et al.
Eur J Nucl Med. 1985;10(7-8):321-31.

Tc-99m-DTPA aerosol and radioactive gases compared as adjuncts to perfusion scintigraphy in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism.
Alderson PO, et al.
Radiology. 1984 Nov;153(2):515-21.

Effect of posture on inter-regional distribution of pulmonary perfusion and VA/Q ratios in man.
Amis TC, et al.
Respir Physiol. 1984 May;56(2):169-82.

Effect of posture on inter-regional distribution of pulmonary ventilation in man.
Amis TC, et al.
Respir Physiol. 1984 May;56(2):145-67.

Effective penetration of the lung periphery using radioactive aerosols: concise communication.
Hannan WJ, et al.
J Nucl Med. 1982 Oct;23(10):872-7.

The use of Kr-81m in ventilation imaging.
Pommet R, et al.
Clin Nucl Med. 1982 Mar;7(3):122-30.

Dynamic imaging of the respiratory cycle with 81mKr.
Kaplan E, et al.
Chest. 1982 Mar;81(3):312-7.

Quantitative comparison of 99Tcm-aerosol and 81Krm ventilation images.
Agnew JE, et al.
Clin Phys Physiol Meas. 1982 Feb;3(1):21-30.

Clinical ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy.
Fazio F, et al.
Clin Physiol. 1981 Aug;1(4):323-37. Review.

Regional lung function in bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis.
Amis TC, et al.
Clin Sci. 1980 Dec;59(6):485-92.

Scintigraphic evaluation of regional pulmonary ventilation.
Alderson PO, et al.
Semin Nucl Med. 1980 Jul;10(3):218-42. Review.

Evaluation of bullous emphysema by the usual means and radioactive gas tracers: results after surgery.
Bartsch P, et al.
Bronchopneumologie. 1980 May-Jun;30(3):182-92. French.

Lung ventilation model for radioactive tracer itdal breathing.
Bajzer Z, et al.
Phys Med Biol. 1980 Mar;25(2):293-307.

Ventilation studies with krypton-81m.
Georgi P, et al.
Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1979 Dec;27(6):359-61.

Krypton-81m: a better radiopharmaceutical for assessment of regional lung function in children.
Li DK, et al.
Radiology. 1979 Mar;130(3):741-7.

Preparation, administration and disposal of the radioactive gases.
Finn R
Prog Nucl Med. 1978;5:6-12.

Inhalation lung imaging with radioactive aerosols and gases.
Taplin GV, et al.
Prog Nucl Med. 1978;5:119-43.

Assessment of regional ventilation by continuous inhalation of radioactive krypton-81m.
Fazio F, et al.
Br Med J. 1975 Sep 20;3(5985):673-6.

Assessment of regional pulmonary function with radioactive gases.
Bass H
Prog Nucl Med. 1973;3:67-84. Review.

 

Dosimetry

CHT:  81Krm - Some notes for guidance.
W H Thomson, H Warren, P Childs, N R Williams
Physics in Medicine and Biology 1989: 34; 140 (Abstract).

CHT:  Administered activity of 81Krm for ventilation: a method for estimation, a model of the process and some recommendations
W H Thomson, P Childs, N R Williams, L K Harding
Nuclear Medicine Communications 1993: 14; 275 (Abstract)

CHT:  How much 81Krm gas is administered?
P Childs, R N Franklin, W H Thomson
Nuclear Medicine Communications 1993: 14; 285 (Abstract)

CHT:  Quantitative 81Krm lung imaging
P B Iles, N R Williams, W H Thomson, L K Harding
The European Respiratory Journal 1994: 7 (Suppl. 18); 333s

CHT:  Quantitative distribution of specific distribution using 81Krm gas
N R Williams, P B Iles, W H Thomson, L K Harding
Nuclear Medicine Communications 1995: 16; 248 (poster)

CHT:  A model for administered 81Krm activity and a method for measurement: some recommendations for patient and staff dose reduction
W H Thomson, P Childs, N R Williams, L K Harding
Radioactive Isotopes in Clinical Medicine and Research, Advances in Pharmacological Sciences 1995: Birkhauser Verlag Basel; 23 - 28
European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 1994: 21; S3 (Abstract)

A breathing lung phantom for 81mKr lung ventilation studies its use in dosimetry and quality control.
Camps JA, et al.
Eur J Nucl Med. 1988;14(11):529-32.

Air-ground interface effect on gamma-ray submersion dose.
Ryman JC, et al.
Health Phys. 1981 Nov;41(5):759-68.

Assessment of gamma-ray exposures due to finite plumes.
Lahti GP, et al.
Health Phys. 1981 Aug;41(2):319-40.

External exposure around the patients during the three dimensional gamma-cerebral blood flow using 81mKr.
Orito T, et al.
Radioisotopes. 1980 Sep;29(9):451-3. Japanese.

 

Related Topics 

Myocardial perfusion measured by dual-isotope acquisition of 81rubidium/81mkrypton: an experimental verification of the method.
Stoll HP, et al.
Basic Res Cardiol. 1994 Jul-Aug;89(4):354-65.

Effect of PEEP on regional ventilation and perfusion in the mechanically ventilated preterm lamb.
Schlessel JS, et al.
J Nucl Med. 1989 Aug;30(8):1342-50.

Cerebral hemodynamics in arteriovenous malformations: evaluation by single-photon emission CT.
Takeuchi S, et al.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1987 Mar-Apr;8(2):193-7.

Right ventricular ejection fraction measured by first-pass intravenous krypton-81m: reproducibility and comparison with technetium-99m.
Wong DF, et al.
Am J Cardiol. 1985 Nov 1;56(12):776-80.

Evaluation of methods for qualitative and quantitative assessment of esophageal transit of liquid.
Ham HR, et al.
Eur J Nucl Med. 1985;11(1):17-21.

Topographic distribution of pulmonary ventilation and perfusion in the horse.
Amis TC, et al.
Am J Vet Res. 1984 Aug;45(8):1597-601.

Measurement of skin and total blood flow to the rabbit lower limb by washout of freely diffusible radioactive tracers introduced intra-arterially.
Adiseshiah M, et al.
Eur Surg Res. 1984;16(6):372-7.

A pressure independent orifice equation for the estimation of diastolic mitral valve area in mitral insufficiency: correlation with cardiac catheterisation data using a radioactive Krypton indicator method for the determination of regurgitant filling volume.
Seitz WS, et al.
Cardiovasc Res. 1983 Dec;17(12):762-6.

Measurement of the right ventricular ejection fraction during the acute phase of myocardial infarction using 81m krypton infusion. Comparison with the left ejection fraction.
Wolf JE, et al.
Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss. 1983 Feb;76(2):145-53. French.

Methods for measuring renal blood flow: total flow and regional distribution.
Aukland K
Annu Rev Physiol. 1980;42:543-55. Review.

Theoretical of the measurement of choroidal blood flow using a radioactive inert gas clearance technique.
Strang R, et al.
Phys Med Biol. 1979 Sep;24(5):964-75.

A critical analysis of renal blood flow distribution during hemorrhage in dogs.
Passmore JC, et al.
Circ Shock. 1978;5(4):327-38.

Unilateral kidney blood flow measurement using the 81Rb/81mKr ratio.
van Herk G, et al.
Contrib Nephrol. 1978;11:67-72.

Intrarenal blood flow distribution during endotoxemia in dogs.
Neiberger RE, et al.
Circ Shock. 1978;5(4):339-45.

The measurement of spleen perfusion in man: a non-invasive method using the ratio between Rubidium-81 and its decay product Krypton-81m.
Jones T, et al.
Eur J Nucl Med. 1977 Dec 30;2(4):219-24.

Assessment of regional cerebral blood flow by continuous carotid infusion of krypton-81m.
Fazio F, et al.
J Nucl Med. 1977 Oct;18(10):962-6.

Determination of splenic blood flow by inhalation of radioactive rare gases.
Huchzermeyer H, et al.
Eur J Clin Invest. 1977 Oct;7(5):345-9.

Choroidal and cerebral blood flow in baboons measured by the external monitoring of radioactive inert gases.
Strang R, et al.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1977 Jun;16(6):571-6.

Testicular blood flow and a study of the testicular venous to arterial transfer of radioactive krypton and testosterone in the rhesus monkey.
Einer-Jensen N, et al.
J Physiol (Lond). 1977 May;267(1):1-15.

Methodological problems in measurements of hepatic blood flow and lipid content by radioactive gases.
Lindskov J, et al.
In: Leevy CM, ed. Diseases of the liver and biliary tract. Basel, Karger, 1976. 1976 Jul 6; .

Value and limitations of coronary blood flow measurement in man.
Tauchert M
Klin Wochenschr. 1975 Aug 1;53(15):691-707. Review. German.

Measurement of myocardial blood flow.
Parkey RW, et al.
CRC Crit Rev Clin Radiol Nucl Med. 1975 Jul;6(3):441-58. Review.

Determination of the specific blood flow of the liver by inhalation of radioactive rare gases.
Schmitz-Feuerhake I, et al.
Acta Hepatogastroenterol (Stuttg). 1975 Jun;22(3):150-8.

Measurement of radioactive gases in ducts with a simple scintillation detector.
Gibson JA, et al.
Health Phys. 1975 Apr;28(4):435-43.

A new in vivo method of measuring hepatic blood flow and oxygen uptake in dogs using radioactive krypton.
Brant PC, et al.
J Physiol (Lond). 1975 Mar;246(2):13P-14P.

Measurement of cutaneous blood flow by freely diffusible radioactive isotopes. Methodological studies on the washout of krypton-85 and xenon-133 from the cutaneous tissue in man
Sejrsen P
Dan Med Bull. 1971 May;18:Suppl 3:9-38.

Evaluation of the method of cardiac output measurement by continuous perfusion of radioactive diffusible indicator.
Keromes A, et al.
J Physiol (Paris). 1970;62 Suppl 3:393-4. French.

Arteriovenous shunts characterized by means of external arterial curves of radioactive xenon.
Pascual JA, et al.
Arch Inst Cardiol Mex. 1969 Jul-Aug;39(4):505-14. Spanish.

Evaluation of selective coronary flow with the method of myocardial clearance of radioactive krypton.
Reale A, et al.
Atti Soc Ital Cardiol. 1969 Jan 21;2:175-7. Italian.

Cardiac output determination with radioactive 85-krypton.
Sanders RJ, et al.
J Surg Res. 1968 Nov;8(11):522-7.

Study of the cerebral circulation and measurement of cerebral blood blow in humans. Use of radioactive isotopes.
Bes A, et al.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris). 1968 Oct-Dec;26(10):1071-7. Review. French.

External measurement of regional cerebral blood flow in man by common carotid arterial injection of radioactive krypton-85 saline solution.
Ueda H, et al.
Jpn Heart J. 1968 Jul;9(4):349-58.

Measurement of blood flow distributed of the right and left lungs by bronchospirometry and excretion of a radioactive isotope of Krypton (Kr25).
Ranson-Bitker B, et al.
Respiration. 1968;25(5):395-404.

On the differential diagnosis of combined mitral valve failure with the radioactive isotope krypton-85.
Knebel R
Anglo Ger Med Rev. 1967 Dec;4(1):24-30. German.

Pulmonary regional ventilation-perfusion relationships in chronic cardiopulmonary disorders. I. Radioactive rare gas method (Xe-133, Xe-135 and Kr-85 method).
Ueda H, et al.
Jpn Heart J. 1967 Nov;8(6):559-68.

Measurement of blood flow through human abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue by local injection of radioactive xenon. Preliminary report.
Haggendal E, et al.
Acta Med Scand. 1967 Feb;181(2):215-7.

Regional cerebral blood flow in man determined by intra-arterial injection of radioactive inert gas.
Hoedt-Rasmussen K, et al.
Circ Res. 1966 Mar;18(3):237-47.

The slow radioactive Krypton method using a breath by breath counting system in measurement of blood and gas distribution in separated lungs.
Cellerino AF, et al.
Panminerva Med. 1965 Nov;7(11):427-33.

The regional cerebral blood flow in man measured by the use of radioactive inert gases.
Fieschi C
Rass Fisiopatol Clin Ter. 1965 Mar-Apr;37(2):89-113. Italian.

 

 

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Last modified: June 25, 2003