to be completed
The following references are mainly obtained from Medline although those beginning CHT: are from our department. They are grouped under the general headings of -
CHT: 81Rb-81Krm Generators: cyclotron production, dispensing,
quantitative measurements and supply
CHT: Measurements of rubidium isotopic activities and the elution parameters of 81Krm
generators using a standardised In-114m source.
A B Mostafa, S H K Sandhu, P R Cowtan, N R Williams, R A Braithwaite, S R Hesslewood
Nuclear Medicine Communications 1986: 7; 291. (Abstract)
Determination of residual activities in 99mTc generators and
Long-lived radioactive contaminant of a krypton-81m gas
A B Mostafa, PO Childs, D A Causer
Clinical Physics and Physiological Measurement 1983: 4; 97 (Abstract).
CHT: A quantitative evaluation of breathing systems used with Kr-81m generators
CHT: Optimisation of the use of 81Krm generators.
CHT: Regional pulmonary distribution of 81Krm gas delivered by different breathing
W H Thomson, A Mills, P Childs, L K Harding
Nuklearmedizin 1987: 26; 143. CHT: Testing collimators for 81Krm.
A P Mills, W H Thomson, P Childs, L K Harding
Nuclear Medicine Communications 1987: 8; 269. (Abstract)
CHT: The bolus effect of a reservoir system for 81Krm gas delivery.
S K Ghosh, P O Childs
Physics in Medicine and Biology 1990: 35; 127-130. CHT: A pump for 81Krm gas generators.
P Childs, N Franklin
Nuclear Medicine Communications 1994: 15; 202 (Abstract)
CHT: Quantification of aerosol ventilation images: a comparison with 81Krm.
N R Williams, A B Mostafa, W H Thomson, L K Harding
Clin Phys Physiol Meas. 1987: 8; 190 (Abstract).
CHT: Kr-81m: Factors affecting quantitative lung analysis.
N R Williams, D Boldy, P B Iles, W H Thomson, N J Tulley, L K Harding
Nuklearmedizin 1987: Suppl. 24; 400-402. CHT: Which collimator for V/Q imaging with 81Krm?
P Childs, A Mills, W Thomson
Nuclear Medicine Communications 1992: 13; 397 (Abstract)
Discordant findings between krypton-81m gas and Tc-99m labeled
ultrafine aerosol lung ventilation SPECT in two patients with idiopathic pulmonary
Technegas versus krypton-81m gas as an inhalation agent.
Comparison of pulmonary distribution at total lung capacity.
Controlled delivery of krypton-81m boli in normal subjects: results and
Distribution of radioactive aerosol in the airways of children and adolescents
with bronchial hyper-responsiveness.
Left lower lobe ventilation is reduced in patients with cardiomegaly in the
supine but not the prone position.
Regional comparison of technetium-99m DTPA aerosol and
radioactive gas ventilation (xenon and krypton) studies in patients with suspected
A comparison of the economics of xenon 127, xenon 133 and
krypton 81m for routine ventilation imaging of the lungs.
Regional specific mean expiratory gas flow from 81mKr equilibrium inhalation
Tc-99m-DTPA aerosol and radioactive gases compared as adjuncts to perfusion
scintigraphy in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism.
Effect of posture on inter-regional distribution of pulmonary perfusion and
VA/Q ratios in man.
Effect of posture on inter-regional distribution of pulmonary ventilation in
Effective penetration of the lung periphery using radioactive aerosols: concise
The use of Kr-81m in ventilation imaging.
Dynamic imaging of the respiratory cycle with 81mKr.
Quantitative comparison of 99Tcm-aerosol and 81Krm ventilation images.
Clinical ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy.
Regional lung function in bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis.
Scintigraphic evaluation of regional pulmonary ventilation.
Evaluation of bullous emphysema by the usual means and radioactive gas tracers:
results after surgery.
Lung ventilation model for radioactive tracer itdal breathing.
Ventilation studies with krypton-81m.
Krypton-81m: a better radiopharmaceutical for assessment of
regional lung function in children.
Preparation, administration and disposal of the radioactive gases.
Inhalation lung imaging with radioactive aerosols and gases.
Assessment of regional ventilation by continuous inhalation of
Assessment of regional pulmonary function with radioactive
CHT: 81Krm - Some notes for guidance.
W H Thomson, P Childs, N R Williams, L K Harding
Nuclear Medicine Communications 1993: 14; 275 (Abstract)
CHT: How much 81Krm gas is administered?
P B Iles, N R Williams, W H Thomson, L K Harding
The European Respiratory Journal 1994: 7 (Suppl. 18); 333s CHT: Quantitative distribution of specific distribution using 81Krm gas
N R Williams, P B Iles, W H Thomson, L K Harding
Nuclear Medicine Communications 1995: 16; 248 (poster) CHT: A model for administered 81Krm activity and a method for measurement: some recommendations for patient and staff dose reduction
W H Thomson, P Childs, N R Williams, L K Harding
Radioactive Isotopes in Clinical Medicine and Research, Advances in Pharmacological Sciences 1995: Birkhauser Verlag Basel; 23 - 28
European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 1994: 21; S3 (Abstract)
A breathing lung phantom for 81mKr lung ventilation studies its use in
dosimetry and quality control.
Air-ground interface effect on gamma-ray submersion dose.
Assessment of gamma-ray exposures due to finite plumes.
External exposure around the patients during the three dimensional
gamma-cerebral blood flow using 81mKr.
Myocardial perfusion measured by dual-isotope acquisition of
81rubidium/81mkrypton: an experimental verification of the method.
Effect of PEEP on regional ventilation and perfusion in the mechanically
ventilated preterm lamb.
Cerebral hemodynamics in arteriovenous malformations: evaluation by
single-photon emission CT.
Right ventricular ejection fraction measured by first-pass intravenous
krypton-81m: reproducibility and comparison with technetium-99m.
Evaluation of methods for qualitative and quantitative assessment of esophageal
transit of liquid.
Topographic distribution of pulmonary ventilation and perfusion in the horse.
Measurement of skin and total blood flow to the rabbit lower limb by washout of
freely diffusible radioactive tracers introduced intra-arterially.
A pressure independent orifice equation for the estimation of diastolic mitral
valve area in mitral insufficiency: correlation with cardiac catheterisation data using a
radioactive Krypton indicator method for the determination of regurgitant filling volume.
Measurement of the right ventricular ejection fraction during the acute phase
of myocardial infarction using 81m krypton infusion. Comparison with the left ejection
Methods for measuring renal blood flow: total flow and regional distribution.
Theoretical of the measurement of choroidal blood flow using a radioactive
inert gas clearance technique.
A critical analysis of renal blood flow distribution during hemorrhage in dogs.
Unilateral kidney blood flow measurement using the 81Rb/81mKr ratio.
Intrarenal blood flow distribution during endotoxemia in dogs.
The measurement of spleen perfusion in man: a non-invasive method using the
ratio between Rubidium-81 and its decay product Krypton-81m.
Assessment of regional cerebral blood flow by continuous carotid infusion of
Determination of splenic blood flow by inhalation of radioactive rare gases.
Choroidal and cerebral blood flow in baboons measured by the external
monitoring of radioactive inert gases.
Testicular blood flow and a study of the testicular venous to arterial transfer
of radioactive krypton and testosterone in the rhesus monkey.
Methodological problems in measurements of hepatic blood flow and lipid content
by radioactive gases.
Value and limitations of coronary blood flow measurement in man.
Measurement of myocardial blood flow.
Determination of the specific blood flow of the liver by inhalation of
radioactive rare gases.
Measurement of radioactive gases in ducts with a simple scintillation detector.
A new in vivo method of measuring hepatic blood flow and oxygen uptake in dogs
using radioactive krypton.
Measurement of cutaneous blood flow by freely diffusible radioactive isotopes.
Methodological studies on the washout of krypton-85 and xenon-133 from the cutaneous
tissue in man
Evaluation of the method of cardiac output measurement by continuous perfusion
of radioactive diffusible indicator.
Arteriovenous shunts characterized by means of external arterial curves of
Evaluation of selective coronary flow with the method of myocardial clearance
of radioactive krypton.
Cardiac output determination with radioactive 85-krypton.
Study of the cerebral circulation and measurement of cerebral blood blow in
humans. Use of radioactive isotopes.
External measurement of regional cerebral blood flow in man by common carotid
arterial injection of radioactive krypton-85 saline solution.
Measurement of blood flow distributed of the right and left lungs by
bronchospirometry and excretion of a radioactive isotope of Krypton (Kr25).
On the differential diagnosis of combined mitral valve failure with the
radioactive isotope krypton-85.
Pulmonary regional ventilation-perfusion relationships in chronic
cardiopulmonary disorders. I. Radioactive rare gas method (Xe-133, Xe-135 and Kr-85
Measurement of blood flow through human abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue by
local injection of radioactive xenon. Preliminary report.
Regional cerebral blood flow in man determined by intra-arterial injection of
radioactive inert gas.
The slow radioactive Krypton method using a breath by breath counting system in
measurement of blood and gas distribution in separated lungs.
The regional cerebral blood flow in man measured by the use of radioactive
Last modified: June 25, 2003